A reconverting bank and each bank that subsequently transfers, presents, or returns a substitute check in any electronic or paper form, and receives consideration for such transfer, presentment, or return shall indemnify the transferee, any subsequent collecting or returning bank, the depositary bank, the drawee, the drawer, the payee, the depositor, and any endorser, up to the amount described in subsections (b) and (c), as applicable, to the extent of any loss incurred by any recipient of a substitute check if that loss occurred due to the receipt of a substitute check instead of the original check.
(b) Indemnity amount (1) Amount in event of breach of warranty
The amount of the indemnity under subsection (a) shall be the amount of any loss (including costs and reasonable attorney’s fees and other expenses of representation) proximately caused by a breach of a warranty provided under section 5004 of this title.
(2) Amount in absence of breach of warranty
In the absence of a breach of a warranty provided under section 5004 of this title, the amount of the indemnity under subsection (a) shall be the sum of—
(A) the amount of any loss, up to the amount of the substitute check; and
(B) interest and expenses (including costs and reasonable attorney’s fees and other expenses of representation).
(c) Comparative negligence (1) In general
If a loss described in subsection (a) results in whole or in part from the negligence or failure to act in good faith on the part of an indemnified party, then that party’s indemnification under this section shall be reduced in proportion to the amount of negligence or bad faith attributable to that party.
(2) Rule of construction
Nothing in this subsection reduces the rights of a consumer or any other person under the Uniform Commercial Code or other applicable provision of Federal or State law.
(d) Effect of producing original check or copy (1) In general
If the indemnifying bank produces the original check or a copy of the original check (including an image or a substitute check) that accurately represents all of the information on the front and back of the original check (as of the time the original check was truncated) or is otherwise sufficient to determine whether or not a claim is valid, the indemnifying bank shall—
(A) be liable under this section only for losses covered by the indemnity that are incurred up to the time that the original check or copy is provided to the indemnified party; and
(B) have a right to the return of any funds it has paid under the indemnity in excess of those losses.
(2) Coordination of indemnity with implied warranty
The production of the original check, a substitute check, or a copy under paragraph (1) by an indemnifying bank shall not absolve the bank from any liability on a warranty established under this chapter or any other provision of law.
(e) Subrogation of rights (1) In general
Each indemnifying bank shall be subrogated to the rights of any indemnified party to the extent of the indemnity.
(2) Recovery under warranty
A bank that indemnifies a party under this section may attempt to recover from another party based on a warranty or other claim.
(3) Duty of indemnified party
Each indemnified party shall have a duty to comply with all reasonable requests for assistance from an indemnifying bank in connection with any claim the indemnifying bank brings against a warrantor or other party related to a check that forms the basis for the indemnification.
REFERENCES IN TEXT This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 108–100, Oct. 28, 2003, 117 Stat. 1177, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5001 of this title and Tables.EFFECTIVE DATE Section effective at the end of the 12-month period beginning on Oct. 28, 2003, see section 20 of Pub. L. 108–100, set out as a note under section 5001 of this title.
12 U.S.C. § 5005 (2018)