(a) Notice and claims (1) Notice of proceedings
Promptly after the appointment of the trustee, such trustee shall cause notice of the commencement of proceedings under this section to be published in one or more newspapers of general circulation in the form and manner determined by the court, and at the same time shall cause a copy of such notice to be mailed to each person who, from the books and records of the debtor, appears to have been a customer of the debtor with an open account within the past twelve months, to the address of such person as it appears from the books and records of the debtor. Notice to creditors other than customers shall be given in the manner prescribed by title 11, except that such notice shall be given by the trustee.
(2) Statement of claim
A customer shall file with the trustee a written statement of claim but need not file a formal proof of claim, except that no obligation of the debtor to any person associated with the debtor within the meaning of section 78c(a)(18) of this title or section 78c(a)(21) of this title, any beneficial owner of 5 per centum or more of the voting stock of the debtor, or any member of the immediate family of any such person or owner may be satisfied without formal proof of claim.
(3) Time limitations
No claim of a customer or other creditor of the debtor which is received by the trustee after the expiration of the six-month period beginning on the date of publication of notice under paragraph (1) shall be allowed, except that the court may, upon application within such period and for cause shown, grant a reasonable, fixed extension of time for the filing of a claim by the United States, by a State or political subdivision thereof, or by an infant or incompetent person without a guardian. Any claim of a customer for net equity which is received by the trustee after the expiration of such period of time as may be fixed by the court (not exceeding sixty days after the date of publication of notice under paragraph (1)) need not be paid or satisfied in whole or in part out of customer property, and, to the extent such claim is satisfied from moneys advanced by SIPC, it shall be satisfied in cash or securities (or both) as the trustee determines is most economical to the estate.
(4) Effect on claims
Except as otherwise provided in this section, and without limiting the powers and duties of the trustee to discharge obligations promptly as specified in this section, nothing in this section shall limit the right of any person, including any subrogee, to establish by formal proof or otherwise as the court may provide such claims as such person may have against the debtor, including claims for the payment of money and the delivery of specific securities, without resort to moneys advanced by SIPC to the trustee.
(b) Payments to customers
After receipt of a written statement of claim pursuant to subsection (a)(2), the trustee shall promptly discharge, in accordance with the provisions of this section, all obligations of the debtor to a customer relating to, or net equity claims based upon, securities or cash, by the delivery of securities or the making of payments to or for the account of such customer (subject to the provisions of subsection (d) and section 78fff–3(a) of this title) insofar as such obligations are ascertainable from the books and records of the debtor or are otherwise established to the satisfaction of the trustee. For purposes of distributing securities to customers, all securities shall be valued as of the close of business on the filing date. For purposes of this subsection, the court shall, among other things—
(1) with respect to net equity claims, authorize the trustee to satisfy claims out of moneys made available to the trustee by SIPC notwithstanding the fact that there has not been any showing or determination that there are sufficient funds of the debtor available to satisfy such claims; and
(2) with respect to claims relating to, or net equities based upon, securities of a class and series of an issuer which are ascertainable from the books and records of the debtor or are otherwise established to the satisfaction of the trustee, authorize the trustee to deliver securities of such class and series if and to the extent available to satisfy such claims in whole or in part, with partial deliveries to be made pro rata to the greatest extent considered practicable by the trustee.
Any payment or delivery of property pursuant to this subsection may be conditioned upon the trustee requiring claimants to execute, in a form to be determined by the trustee, appropriate receipts, supporting affidavits, releases, and assignments, but shall be without prejudice to any right of a claimant to file formal proof of claim within the period specified in subsection (a)(3) for any balance of securities or cash to which such claimant considers himself entitled.
(c) Customer related property (1) Allocation of customer property
The trustee shall allocate customer property of the debtor as follows:
(A) first, to SIPC in repayment of advances made by SIPC pursuant to section 78fff–3(c)(1) of this title, to the extent such advances recovered securities which were apportioned to customer property pursuant to section 78fff(d) of this title;
(B) second, to customers of such debtor, who shall share ratably in such customer property on the basis and to the extent of their respective net equities;
(C) third, to SIPC as subrogee for the claims of customers;
(D) fourth, to SIPC in repayment of advances made by SIPC pursuant to section 78fff–3(c)(2) of this title.
Any customer property remaining after allocation in accordance with this paragraph shall become part of the general estate of the debtor. To the extent customer property and SIPC advances pursuant to section 78fff–3(a) of this title are not sufficient to pay or otherwise satisfy in full the net equity claims of customers, such customers shall be entitled, to the extent only of their respective unsatisfied net equities, to participate in the general estate as unsecured creditors. For purposes of allocating customer property under this paragraph, securities to be delivered in payment of net equity claims for securities of the same class and series of an issuer shall be valued as of the close of business on the filing date.
(2) Delivery of customer name securities
The trustee shall deliver customer name securities to or on behalf of a customer of the debtor entitled thereto if the customer is not indebted to the debtor. If the customer is so indebted, such customer may, with the approval of the trustee, reclaim customer name securities upon payment to the trustee, within such period of time as the trustee determines, of all indebtedness of such customer to the debtor.
(3) Recovery of transfers
Whenever customer property is not sufficient to pay in full the claims set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (D) of paragraph (1), the trustee may recover any property transferred by the debtor which, except for such transfer, would have been customer property if and to the extent that such transfer is voidable or void under the provisions of title 11. Such recovered property shall be treated as customer property. For purposes of such recovery, the property so transferred shall be deemed to have been the property of the debtor and, if such transfer was made to a customer or for his benefit, such customer shall be deemed to have been a creditor, the laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
(d) Purchase of securities
The trustee shall, to the extent that securities can be purchased in a fair and orderly market, purchase securities as necessary for the delivery of securities to customers in satisfaction of their claims for net equities based on securities under section 78fff–1(b)(1) of this title and for the transfer of customer accounts under subsection (f), in order to restore the accounts of such customers as of the filing date. To the extent consistent with subsection (c), customer property and moneys advanced by SIPC may be used by the trustee to pay for securities so purchased. Moneys advanced by SIPC for each account of a separate customer may not be used to purchase securities to the extent that the aggregate value of such securities on the filing date exceeded the amount permitted to be advanced by SIPC under the provisions of section 78fff–3(a) of this title.
(e) Closeouts (1) In general
Any contract of the debtor for the purchase or sale of securities in the ordinary course of its business with other brokers or dealers which is wholly executory on the filing date shall not be completed by the trustee, except to the extent permitted by SIPC rule. Upon the adoption by SIPC of rules with respect to the closeout of such a contract but prior to the adoption of rules with respect to the completion of such a contract, the other broker or dealer shall close out such contract, without unnecessary delay, in the best available market and pursuant to such SIPC rules. Until such time as SIPC adopts rules with respect to the completion or closeout of such a contract, such a contract shall be closed out in accordance with Commission Rule S6(d)–1 as in effect on May 21, 1978, or any comparable rule of the Commission subsequently adopted, to the extent not inconsistent with the provisions of this subsection.
(2) Net profit or loss
A broker or dealer shall net all profits and losses on all contracts closed out under this subsection and—
(A) if such broker or dealer shows a net profit on such contracts, he shall pay such net profit to the trustee; and
(B) if such broker or dealer sustains a net loss on such contracts, he shall be entitled to file a claim against the debtor with the trustee in the amount of such net loss.
To the extent that a net loss sustained by a broker or dealer arises from contracts pursuant to which such broker or dealer was acting for its own customer, such broker or dealer shall be entitled to receive funds advanced by SIPC to the trustee in the amount of such loss, except that such broker or dealer may not receive more than $40,000 for each separate customer with respect to whom it sustained a loss. With respect to a net loss which is not payable under the preceding sentence from funds advanced by SIPC, the broker or dealer shall be entitled to participate in the general estate as an unsecured creditor.
(3) Registered clearing agencies
Neither a registered clearing agency which by its rules has an established procedure for the closeout of open contracts between an insolvent broker or dealer and its participants, nor its participants to the extent such participants’ claims are or may be processed within the registered clearing agency, shall be entitled to receive SIPC funds in payment of any losses on such contracts, except as SIPC may otherwise provide by rule. If such registered clearing agency or its participants sustain a net loss on the closeout of such contracts with the debtor, they shall have the right to participate in the general estate as unsecured creditors to the extent of such loss. Any funds or other property owed to the debtor, after the closeout of such contracts, shall be promptly paid to the trustee. Rules adopted by SIPC under this paragraph shall provide that in no case may a registered clearing agency or its participants, to the extent such participants’ claims are or may be processed within the registered clearing agency, be entitled to receive funds advanced by SIPC in an amount greater, in the aggregate, than could be received by the participants if such participants proceeded individually under paragraph (1) and (2).
(4) "Customer" defined
For purposes of this subsection, the term "customer" does not include any person who—
(A) is a broker or dealer;
(B) had a claim for cash or securities which by contract, agreement, or understanding, or by operation of law, was part of the capital of the claiming broker or dealer or was subordinated to the claims of any or all creditors of such broker or dealer; or
(C) had a relationship of the kind specified in section 78fff–3(a)(5) of this title with the debtor.
A claiming broker or dealer shall be deemed to have been acting on behalf of its customer if it acted as agent for such customer or if it held such customer’s order which was to be executed as a part of its contract with the debtor.
(f) Transfer of customer accounts
In order to facilitate the prompt satisfaction of customer claims and the orderly liquidation of the debtor, the trustee may, pursuant to terms satisfactory to him and subject to the prior approval of SIPC, sell or otherwise transfer to another member of SIPC, without consent of any customer, all or any part of the account of a customer of the debtor. In connection with any such sale or transfer to another member of SIPC and subject to the prior approval of SIPC, the trustee may—
(1) waive or modify the need to file a written statement of claim pursuant to subsection (a)(2); and
(2) enter into such agreements as the trustee considers appropriate under the circumstances to indemnify any such member of SIPC against shortages of cash or securities in the customer accounts sold or transferred.
The funds of SIPC may be made available to guarantee or secure any indemnification under paragraph (2). The prior approval of SIPC to such indemnification shall be conditioned, among such other standards as SIPC may determine, upon a determination by SIPC that the probable cost of any such indemnification can reasonably be expected not to exceed the cost to SIPC of proceeding under section 78fff–3(a) of this title and section 78fff–3(b) of this title.
PRIOR PROVISIONS A prior section 8 of Pub. L. 91–598 was renumbered section 12 and is classified to section 78hhh of this title.AMENDMENTS 1978—Subsecs. (a)(1), (c)(3). Pub. L. 95–598 substituted "title 11" for "the Bankruptcy Act".EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.
15 U.S.C. § 78fff-2 (2018)