For purposes of this section:
(1) Transferable record
The term "transferable record" means an electronic record that—
(A) would be a note under Article 3 of the Uniform Commercial Code if the electronic record were in writing;
(B) the issuer of the electronic record expressly has agreed is a transferable record; and
(C) relates to a loan secured by real property.
A transferable record may be executed using an electronic signature.
(2) Other definitions
The terms "electronic record", "electronic signature", and "person" have the same meanings provided in section 7006 of this title.
A person has control of a transferable record if a system employed for evidencing the transfer of interests in the transferable record reliably establishes that person as the person to which the transferable record was issued or transferred.
A system satisfies subsection (b), and a person is deemed to have control of a transferable record, if the transferable record is created, stored, and assigned in such a manner that—
(1) a single authoritative copy of the transferable record exists which is unique, identifiable, and, except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (4), (5), and (6), unalterable;
(2) the authoritative copy identifies the person asserting control as—
(A) the person to which the transferable record was issued; or
(B) if the authoritative copy indicates that the transferable record has been transferred, the person to which the transferable record was most recently transferred;
(3) the authoritative copy is communicated to and maintained by the person asserting control or its designated custodian;
(4) copies or revisions that add or change an identified assignee of the authoritative copy can be made only with the consent of the person asserting control;
(5) each copy of the authoritative copy and any copy of a copy is readily identifiable as a copy that is not the authoritative copy; and
(6) any revision of the authoritative copy is readily identifiable as authorized or unauthorized.
(d) Status as holder
Except as otherwise agreed, a person having control of a transferable record is the holder, as defined in section 1–201(20) of the Uniform Commercial Code, of the transferable record and has the same rights and defenses as a holder of an equivalent record or writing under the Uniform Commercial Code, including, if the applicable statutory requirements under section 3–302(a), 9–308, or revised section 9–330 of the Uniform Commercial Code are satisfied, the rights and defenses of a holder in due course or a purchaser, respectively. Delivery, possession, and endorsement are not required to obtain or exercise any of the rights under this subsection.
(e) Obligor rights
Except as otherwise agreed, an obligor under a transferable record has the same rights and defenses as an equivalent obligor under equivalent records or writings under the Uniform Commercial Code.
(f) Proof of control
If requested by a person against which enforcement is sought, the person seeking to enforce the transferable record shall provide reasonable proof that the person is in control of the transferable record. Proof may include access to the authoritative copy of the transferable record and related business records sufficient to review the terms of the transferable record and to establish the identity of the person having control of the transferable record.
(g) UCC references
For purposes of this subsection, all references to the Uniform Commercial Code are to the Uniform Commercial Code as in effect in the jurisdiction the law of which governs the transferable record.
EFFECTIVE DATE Pub. L. 106–229, title II, §202, June 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 475, provided that: "This title [enacting this subchapter] shall be effective 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [June 30, 2000]."
15 U.S.C. § 7021 (2018)