(a) Establishment; periodic review and revision; confirmation and approval by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
(1) The Administrator shall establish, and periodically review and revise, rates for the sale and disposition of electric energy and capacity and for the transmission of non-Federal power. Such rates shall be established and, as appropriate, revised to recover, in accordance with sound business principles, the costs associated with the acquisition, conservation, and transmission of electric power, including the amortization of the Federal investment in the Federal Columbia River Power System (including irrigation costs required to be repaid out of power revenues) over a reasonable period of years and the other costs and expenses incurred by the Administrator pursuant to this chapter and other provisions of law. Such rates shall be established in accordance with sections 9 and 10 of the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act (16 U.S.C. 838) [16 U.S.C. 838g and 838h], section 5 of the Flood Control Act of 1944 [16 U.S.C. 825s], and the provisions of this chapter.
(2) Rates established under this section shall become effective only, except in the case of interim rules as provided in subsection (i)(6), upon confirmation and approval by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission upon a finding by the Commission, that such rates—
(A) are sufficient to assure repayment of the Federal investment in the Federal Columbia River Power System over a reasonable number of years after first meeting the Administrator’s other costs,
(B) are based upon the Administrator’s total system costs, and
(C) insofar as transmission rates are concerned, equitably allocate the costs of the Federal transmission system between Federal and non-Federal power utilizing such system.
(b) General application of rates to meet general requirements
(1) The Administrator shall establish a rate or rates of general application for electric power sold to meet the general requirements of public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers within the Pacific Northwest, and loads of electric utilities under section 839c(c) of this title. Such rate or rates shall recover the costs of that portion of the Federal base system resources needed to supply such loads until such sales exceed the Federal base system resources. Thereafter, such rate or rates shall recover the cost of additional electric power as needed to supply such loads, first from the electric power acquired by the Administrator under section 839c(c) of this title and then from other resources.
(2) After July 1, 1985, the projected amounts to be charged for firm power for the combined general requirements of public body, cooperative and Federal agency customers, exclusive of amounts charged such customers under subsection (g) for the costs of conservation, resource and conservation credits, experimental resources and uncontrollable events, may not exceed in total, as determined by the Administrator, during any year after July 1, 1985, plus the ensuing four years, an amount equal to the power costs for general requirements of such customers if, the Administrator assumes that—
(A) the public body and cooperative customers’ general requirements had included during such five-year period the direct service industrial customer loads which are—
(i) served by the Administrator, and
(ii) located within or adjacent to the geographic service boundaries of such public bodies and cooperatives;
(B) public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers were served, during such five-year period, with Federal base system resources not obligated to other entities under contracts existing as of December 5, 1980, (during the remaining term of such contracts) excluding obligations to direct service industrial customer loads included in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;
(C) no purchases or sales by the Administrator as provided in section 839c(c) of this title were made during such five-year period;
(D) all resources that would have been required, during such five-year period, to meet remaining general requirements of the public body, cooperative and Federal agency customers (other than requirements met by the available Federal base system resources determined under subparagraph (B) of this paragraph) were—
(i) purchased from such customers by the Administrator pursuant to section 839d of this title, or
(ii) not committed to load pursuant to section 839c(b) of this title,
and were the least expensive resources owned or purchased by public bodies or cooperatives; and any additional needed resources were obtained at the average cost of all other new resources acquired by the Administrator; and
(E) the quantifiable monetary savings, during such five-year period, to public body, cooperative and Federal agency customers resulting from—
(i) reduced public body and cooperative financing costs as applied to the total amount of resources, other than Federal base system resources, identified under subparagraph (D) of this paragraph, and
(ii) reserve benefits as a result of the Administrator’s actions under this chapter 1
were not achieved.
(3) Any amounts not charged to public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers by reason of paragraph (2) of this subsection shall be recovered through supplemental rate charges for all other power sold by the Administrator to all customers. Rates charged public body, cooperative, or Federal agency customers pursuant to this subsection shall not include any costs or benefits of a net revenue surplus or deficiency occurring for the period ending June 30, 1985, to the extent such surplus or deficiency is caused by—
(A) a difference between actual power deliveries and power deliveries projected for the purpose of establishing rates to direct service industrial customers under subsection (c)(1) of this subsection, and
(B) an overrecovery or underrecovery of the net costs incurred by the Administrator under section 839c(c) of this title as a result of such difference.
Any such revenue surplus or deficiency incurred shall be recovered from, or repaid to, customers over a reasonable period of time after July 1, 1985, through a supplemental rate charge or credit applied proportionately for all other power sold by the Administrator at rates established under other subsections of this section prior to July 1, 1985.
(4) The term "general requirements" as used in this section means the public body, cooperative or Federal agency customer’s electric power purchased from the Administrator under section 839c(b) of this title, exclusive of any new large single load.
(c) Rates applicable to direct service industrial customers
(1) The rate or rates applicable to direct service industrial customers shall be established—
(A) for the period prior to July 1, 1985, at a level which the Administrator estimates will be sufficient to recover the cost of resources the Administrator determines are required to serve such customers’ load and the net costs incurred by the Administrator pursuant to section 839c(c) of this title, based upon the Administrator’s projected ability to make power available to such customers pursuant to their contracts, to the extent that such costs are not recovered through rates applicable to other customers; and
(B) for the period beginning July 1, 1985, at a level which the Administrator determines to be equitable in relation to the retail rates charged by the public body and cooperative customers to their industrial consumers in the region.
(2) The determination under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection shall be based upon the Administrator’s applicable wholesale rates to such public body and cooperative customers and the typical margins included by such public body and cooperative customers in their retail industrial rates but shall take into account—
(A) the comparative size and character of the loads served,
(B) the relative costs of electric capacity, energy, transmission, and related delivery facilities provided and other service provisions, and
(C) direct and indirect overhead costs,
all as related to the delivery of power to industrial customers, except that the Administrator’s rates during such period shall in no event be less than the rates in effect for the contract year ending on June 30, 1985.
(3) The Administrator shall adjust such rates to take into account the value of power system reserves made available to the Administrator through his rights to interrupt or curtail service to such direct service industrial customers.
(d) Discount rates; special rates
(1) In order to avoid adverse impacts on retail rates of the Administrator’s customers with low system densities, the Administrator shall, to the extent appropriate, apply discounts to the rate or rates for such customers.
(2) In order to avoid adverse impacts of increased rates pursuant to this chapter on any direct service industrial customer using raw minerals indigenous to the region as its primary resource, the Administrator, upon request of such customer showing such impacts and after considering the effect of such request on his other obligations under this chapter, is authorized, if the Administrator determines that such impacts will be significant, to establish a special rate applicable to such customer if all power sold to such customer may be interrupted, curtailed, or withdrawn to meet firm loads in the region. Such rate shall be established in accordance with this section and shall include such terms and conditions as the Administrator deems appropriate.
(e) Uniform rates; rates for sale of peaking capacity; time-of-day, seasonal, and other rates
Nothing in this chapter prohibits the Administrator from establishing, in rate schedules of general application, a uniform rate or rates for sale of peaking capacity or from establishing time-of-day, seasonal rates, or other rate forms.
(f) Basis for rates
Rates for all other firm power sold by the Administrator for use in the Pacific Northwest shall be based upon the cost of the portions of Federal base system resources, purchases of power under section 839c(c) of this title and additional resources which, in the determination of the Administrator, are applicable to such sales.
(g) Allocation of costs and benefits
Except to the extent that the allocation of costs and benefits is governed by provisions of law in effect on December 5, 1980, or by other provisions of this section, the Administrator shall equitably allocate to power rates, in accordance with generally accepted ratemaking principles and the provisions of this chapter, all costs and benefits not otherwise allocated under this section, including, but not limited to, conservation, fish and wildlife measures, uncontrollable events, reserves, the excess costs of experimental resources acquired under section 839d of this title, the cost of credits granted pursuant to section 839d of this title, operating services, and the sale of or inability to sell excess electric power.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section (except the provisions of subsection (a) of this section), the Administrator shall adjust power rates to include any surcharges arising under section 839b(f) of this title, and shall allocate any revenues from such charges in such manner as the Administrator determines will help achieve the purposes of section 839b(f) of this title.
In establishing rates under this section, the Administrator shall use the following procedures:
(1) Notice of the proposed rates shall be published in the Federal Register with a statement of the justification and reasons supporting such rates. Such notice shall include a date for a hearing in accordance with paragraph (2) of this subsection.
(2) One or more hearings shall be conducted as expeditiously as practicable by a hearing officer to develop a full and complete record and to receive public comment in the form of written and oral presentation of views, data, questions, and argument related to such proposed rates. In any such hearing—
(A) any person shall be provided an adequate opportunity by the hearing officer to offer refutation or rebuttal of any material submitted by any other person or the Administrator, and
(B) the hearing officer, in his discretion, shall allow a reasonable opportunity for cross examination, which, as determined by the hearing officer, is not dilatory, in order to develop information and material relevant to any such proposed rate.
(3) In addition to the opportunity to submit oral and written material at the hearings, any written views, data, questions, and arguments submitted by persons prior to, or before the close of, hearings shall be made a part of the administrative record.
(4) After such a hearing, the Administrator may propose revised rates, publish such proposed rates in the Federal Register, and conduct additional hearings in accordance with this subsection.
(5) The Administrator shall make a final decision establishing a rate or rates based on the record which shall include the hearing transcript, together with exhibits, and such other materials and information as may have been submitted to, or developed by, the Administrator. The decision shall include a full and complete justification of the final rates pursuant to this section.
(6) The final decision of the Administrator shall become effective on confirmation and approval of such rates by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section. The Commission shall have the authority, in accordance with such procedures, if any, as the Commission shall promptly establish and make effective within one year after December 5, 1980, to approve the final rate submitted by the Administrator on an interim basis, pending the Commission’s final decision in accordance with such subsection. Pending the establishment of such procedures by the Commission, if such procedures are required, the Secretary is authorized to approve such interim rates during such one-year period in accordance with the applicable procedures followed by the Secretary prior to December 5, 1980. Such interim rates, at the discretion of the Secretary, shall continue in effect until July 1, 1982.
(j) Cost figures to be indicated on rate schedules and power billings
All rate schedules adopted, and all power billings rendered, by the Administrator pursuant to this section shall indicate—
(1) the approximate cost contribution of different resource categories to the Administrator’s rates for the sale of energy and capacity, and
(2) the cost of resources acquired to meet load growth within the region and the relation of such cost to the average cost of resources available to the Administrator.
(k) Statutory basis for procedures used in establishing rates or rate schedules
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, all rates or rate schedules for the sale of nonfirm electric power within the United States, but outside the region, shall be established after December 5, 1980, by the Administrator in accordance with the procedures of subsection (i) of this section (other than the first sentence of paragraph (6) thereof) and in accordance with the Bonneville Project Act [16 U.S.C. 832 et seq.], the Flood Control Act of 1944, and the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act [16 U.S.C. 838 et seq.]. Notwithstanding section 201(f) of the Federal Power Act [16 U.S.C. 824(f)], such rates or rate schedules shall become effective after review by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for conformance with the requirements of such Acts and after approval thereof by the Commission. Such review shall be based on the record of proceedings established under subsection (i) of this section. The parties to such proceedings under subsection (i) shall be afforded an opportunity by the Commission for an additional hearing in accordance with the procedures established for ratemaking by the Commission pursuant to the Federal Power Act [16 U.S.C. 791a et seq.].
(l) Rates for sales outside United States; negotiations
In order to further the purposes of this chapter and to protect the consumers of the region, the Administrator may negotiate, or establish, rates for electric power sold by the Administrator to any entity not located in the United States which shall be equitable in relation to rates for all electric power which is, or may be, purchased by the Administrator or the Administrator’s customers from entities outside the United States. In establishing rates other than by negotiation, the provisions of subsection (i) shall apply. In the case of any negotiation with an entity not located in the United States, the Administrator shall provide public notice of any proposal to negotiate such rates. Such negotiated rates shall be not less than the rates established under this chapter for nonfirm power sold within the United States but outside the region. The Administrator shall also afford notice of any rates negotiated pursuant to this subsection.
(m) Impact aid payments; formula
(1) Beginning the first fiscal year after the plan and program required by section 839b(d) and (h) of this title are finally adopted, the Administrator may, subject to the provisions of this section, make annual impact aid payments to the appropriate local governments within the region with respect to major transmission facilities of the Administrator, as defined in section 3(c) of the Federal Columbia River Transmission Act [16 U.S.C. 838a(c)]—
(A) which are located within the jurisdictional boundaries of such governments,
(B) which are determined by the Administrator to have a substantial impact on such governments, and
(C) where the construction of such facilities, or any modification thereof, is completed after December 5, 1980, and, in the case of a modification of an existing facility, such modification substantially increases the capacity of such existing transmission facility.
(2) Payments made under this subsection for any fiscal year shall be determined by the Administrator pursuant to a regionwide, uniform formula to be established by rule in accordance with the procedures set forth in subsection (i) of this section. Such rule shall become effective on its approval, after considering its effect on rates established pursuant to this section, by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. In developing such formula, the Administrator shall identify, and take into account, the local governmental services provided to the Administrator concerning such facilities and the associated costs to such governments as the result of such facilities.
(3) Payments made pursuant to this subsection shall be made solely from the fund established by section 11 of the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act [16 U.S.C. 838i]. The provisions of section 13 of such Act [16 U.S.C. 838k], and any appropriations provided to the Administrator under any law, shall not be available for such payments. The authorization of payments under this subsection shall not be construed as an obligation of the United States.
(4) No payment may be made under this subsection with respect to any land or interests in land owned by the United States within the region and administered by any Federal agency (other than the Administrator), without regard to how the United States obtained ownership thereof, including lands or interests therein acquired or withdrawn by a Federal agency for purposes of such agency and subsequently made available to the Administrator for such facilities.
(n) Limiting the inclusion of costs of protection of, mitigation of damage to, and enhancement of fish and wildlife, within rates charged by the Bonneville Power Administration, to the rate period in which the costs are incurred
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, rates established by the Administrator, under this section shall recover costs for protection, mitigation and enhancement of fish and wildlife, whether under this chapter or any other Act, not to exceed such amounts the Administrator forecasts will be expended during the fiscal year 2002–2006 rate period, while preserving the Administrator’s ability to establish appropriate reserves and maintain a high Treasury payment probability for the subsequent rate period.
REFERENCES IN TEXT The Bonneville Project Act, referred to in subsec. (k), is act Aug. 20, 1937, ch. 720, 50 Stat. 731, popularly known as the Bonneville Project Act of 1937, which is classified generally to chapter 12B (§832 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 832 of this title and Tables. The Flood Control Act of 1944, referred to in subsec. (k), is act Dec. 22, 1944, ch. 665, 58 Stat. 887, which enacted sections 460d and 825s of this title, sections 701–1, 701a–1, 708, and 709 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and section 390 of Title 43, Public Lands, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 701c, 701f, and 701j of Title 33. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables. For provisions of the Act relating to sale of electric power, see section 825s of this title. The Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, referred to in subsec. (k), is Pub. L. 93–454, Oct. 18, 1974, 88 Stat. 1376, which is classified generally to chapter 12G (§838 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 838 of this title and Tables. The Federal Power Act, referred to in subsec. (k), is act June 10, 1920, ch. 285, 41 Stat. 1063, which is classified generally to chapter 12 (§791a et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 791a of this title and Tables.AMENDMENTS 1999—Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 106–60 added subsec. (n).
16 U.S.C. § 839e (2018)