(a) Formation of resident council
Tenants seeking to purchase eligible low-income housing in accordance with section 4110 of this title shall organize a resident council for the purpose of developing a resident homeownership program in accordance with standards established by the Secretary. The resident council shall work with a public or private nonprofit organization or a public body (including an agency or instrumentality thereof). Such organization or public body shall have experience to enable it to help the tenants consider their options and to develop the capacity necessary to own and manage the housing, where appropriate, and shall be approved by the Secretary.
(b) Other program requirements and limitations (1) Sales to residents
As a condition of approval of a plan of action involving homeownership program under this subchapter, the resident council shall prepare a workable plan acceptable to the Secretary for giving all residents an opportunity to become owners, which plan shall identify—
(A) the price at which the resident council intends to transfer ownership interests in, or shares representing, units in the housing;
(B) the factors that will influence the establishment of such price;
(C) how such price compares to the estimated appraised value of the ownership interests or shares;
(D) the underwriting standard the resident council plans to use (or reasonably expects a public or private lender to use) for potential tenant purchasers;
(E) the financing arrangements the tenants are expected to pursue or be provided; and
(F) a workable schedule of sale (subject to the limitations of paragraph (8)) based on estimated tenant incomes.
(2) Approval of method of conversion and limitation on conditions of approval
The Secretary shall approve the method for converting the housing to homeownership, which may involve acquisition of ownership interests in, or shares representing, the units in a project under any arrangement determined by the Secretary to be appropriate, such as cooperative ownership (including limited equity cooperative ownership) and fee simple ownership (including condominium ownership). The Secretary may not require the prepayment of the mortgage on eligible low-income housing for the approval of a plan of action involving a homeownership program for the housing.
(3) Required conditions
The Secretary shall require that the form of homeownership impose appropriate conditions, including conditions to assure that—
(A) the number of initial owners that are very low-income, lower income, or moderate-income persons at initial occupancy meet standards required or approved by the Secretary;
(B) occupancy charges payable by the owners meet requirements established by the Secretary;
(C) the aggregate incomes of initial and subsequent owners and other sources of funds for the project are sufficient to permit occupancy charges to cover the full operating costs of the housing and any debt service;
(D) each initial owner occupies the unit it acquires; and
(E) the low-income affordability restrictions shall continue to apply to any rental units in the housing for any period during which such units remain rental units.
(4) Use of proceeds from sales to eligible families
The entity that transfers ownership interests in, or shares representing, units to eligible families, or another entity specified in the approved application, may use 50 percent of the proceeds, if any, from the initial sale for costs of the homeownership program, including improvements to the project, operating and replacement reserves for the project, additional homeownership opportunities in the project, and other project-related activities approved by the Secretary. The remaining 50 percent of such proceeds shall be returned to the Secretary for use under section 4110 of this title, subject to availability under appropriations Acts. Such entity shall keep, and make available to the Secretary, all records necessary to calculate accurately payments due the Secretary under this paragraph.
(5) Restrictions on resale by homeowners (A) In general (i) Transfer permitted
A homeowner under a homeownership program may transfer the homeowner’s ownership interest in, or shares representing, the unit, except that a homeownership program may establish restrictions on the resale of units under the program.
(ii) Right to purchase
Where a resident management corporation, resident council, or cooperative has jurisdiction over the unit, the corporation, council, or cooperative shall have the right to purchase the ownership interest in, or shares representing, the unit from the homeowner for the amount specified in a firm contract between the homeowner and a prospective buyer.
(iii) Promissory note required
The homeowner shall execute a promissory note equal to the difference, if any, between the market value and the purchase price, payable to the Secretary, together with a mortgage securing the obligation of the note.
(B) 6 years or less
In the case of a transfer within 6 years of the acquisition under the program, the homeownership program shall provide for appropriate restrictions to assure that an eligible family may not receive any undue profit. The plan shall provide for limiting the family’s consideration for its interest in the property to the total of—
(i) the contribution to equity paid by the family;
(ii) the value, as determined by such means as the Secretary shall determine through regulation, of any improvements installed at the expense of the family during the family’s tenure as owner; and
(iii) the appreciated value determined by an inflation allowance at a rate which may be based on a cost-of-living index, an income index, or market index as determined by the Secretary through regulation and agreed to by the purchaser and the entity that transfers ownership interests in, or shares representing, units to eligible families (or another entity specified in the approved application), at the time of initial sale, and applied against the contribution to equity.
Such an entity may, at the time of initial sale, enter into an agreement with the family to set a maximum amount which this appreciation may not exceed.
(C) 6–20 years
In the case of a transfer during the period beginning 6 years after the acquisition and ending 20 years after the acquisition, the homeownership program shall provide for the recapture by the Secretary or the program of an amount equal to the amount of the declining balance on the note described in subparagraph (A)(iii).
(D) Use of recaptured funds
Any net sales proceeds that may not be retained by the homeowner under the plan approved pursuant to this paragraph shall be paid to the HOME Investment Trust Fund for the unit of general local government in which the housing is located. If the housing is located in a unit of general local government that is not a participating jurisdiction (as such term is defined in section 12704 of title 42), any such net sales proceeds shall be paid to the HOME Investment Trust Fund for the State in which the housing is located. With respect to any proceeds transferred to a HOME Investment Trust Fund under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the proceeds shall be immediately available for eligible activities to expand the supply of affordable housing under section 12742 of title 42. The Secretary shall require the maintenance of any records necessary to calculate accurately payments due under this paragraph.
(6) Protection of nonpurchasing families (A) Eviction
No tenant residing in a dwelling unit in a property on the date the Secretary approves a plan of action may be evicted by reason of a homeownership program approved under this subchapter.
(B) Rental assistance
If a tenant decides not to purchase a unit, or is not qualified to do so, the Secretary shall ensure that rental assistance under section 1437f of title 42 is available for use by each otherwise qualified tenant (that meets the eligibility requirements under such section) in that or another property. Any system for preferences established under section 1437f(d)(1)(A) or 1437f(o)(6)(A) of title 42 shall not apply to the provision of assistance to such families.
(C) Relocation assistance
The resident council shall also inform each such tenant that if the tenant chooses to move, the owner will pay relocation assistance in accordance with the approved homeownership program.
(7) Qualified management
As a condition of approval of a homeownership program under this subchapter, the resident council shall have demonstrated its abilities to manage eligible properties by having done so effectively and efficiently for a period of not less than 3 years or by entering into a contract with a qualified management entity that meets such standards as the Secretary may prescribe to ensure that the property will be maintained in a decent, safe, and sanitary condition.
(8) Timely homeownership
Except in the case of limited equity cooperatives, resident councils shall transfer ownership of the property to tenants within a specified period of time that the Secretary determines to be reasonable. During the interim period when the property continues to be operated and managed as rental housing, the resident council shall utilize written tenant selection policies and criteria that are approved by the Secretary as consistent with the purpose of providing housing for very low-income families. The resident council shall promptly notify in writing any rejected applicant of the grounds for any rejection.
(9) Records and audit of resident councils (A) Maintenance
Each resident council shall keep such records as may be reasonably necessary to fully disclose the amount and the disposition by such resident council of the proceeds of assistance received under this subchapter (including any proceeds from sales under paragraphs (4) and (5)(D)), the total cost of the homeownership program in connection with which such assistance is given or used, and the amount and nature of that portion of the program supplied by other sources, and such other sources as will facilitate an effective audit.
The Secretary shall have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any books, documents, papers, and records of the resident council that are pertinent to assistance received under this subchapter.
The Comptroller General of the United States, or any of the duly authorized representatives of the Comptroller General, shall also have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any books, documents, papers, and records of the resident council that are pertinent to assistance received under this subchapter.
(10) Assumption conditions
Any entity that assumes a mortgage covering low-income housing in connection with the acquisition of the housing from an owner under this section must comply with any low-income affordability restrictions for the remaining useful life of the housing as determined under section 4112(c) of this title.
AMENDMENTS 1998—Subsec. (b)(6)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, which directed the substitution of "Any system for preferences established under section 1437f(d)(1)(A) or 1437f(o)(6)(A)" for "The requirement for giving preferences to certain categories of eligible families under sections 1437f(d)(1)(A) and 1437f(o)(3)" in second sentence, was executed by making the substitution for text which included the word "preference" rather than "preferences" to reflect the probable intent of Congress. 1992—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–550, §309(1), inserted "and limitation on conditions of approval" in heading and inserted at end of text "The Secretary may not require the prepayment of the mortgage on eligible low-income housing for the approval of a plan of action involving a homeownership program for the housing." Subsec. (b)(3)(E). Pub. L. 102–550, §309(2), added subpar. (E). Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 102–550, §309(3), substituted "Except in the case of limited equity cooperatives, resident" for "Resident". Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 102–550, §309(4), struck out ", as determined by the Secretary," after "entity that assumes", substituted "4112(c)" for "4112(d)", and struck out at end "This requirement shall only apply to an entity, such as a cooperative association, that, as determined by the Secretary, intends to own the housing on a permanent basis."
12 U.S.C. § 4116 (2018)