(a) Establishment of research and development program
The Secretary shall carry out a research and development program through the Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency in the Science and Technology Directorate and in consultation with the Transportation Security Administration and with the Federal Transit Administration, for the purpose of improving the security of public transportation systems.
(b) Grants and contracts authorized
The Secretary shall award grants or contracts to public or private entities to conduct research and demonstrate technologies and methods to reduce and deter terrorist threats or mitigate damages resulting from terrorist attacks against public transportation systems.
(c) Use of funds
Grants or contracts awarded under subsection (a)—
(1) shall be coordinated with activities of the Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency; and
(2) may be used to—
(A) research chemical, biological, radiological, or explosive detection systems that do not significantly impede passenger access;
(B) research imaging technologies;
(C) conduct product evaluations and testing;
(D) improve security and redundancy for critical communications, electrical power, and computer and train control systems;
(E) develop technologies for securing tunnels, transit bridges and aerial structures;
(F) research technologies that mitigate damages in the event of a cyber attack; and
(G) research other technologies or methods for reducing or deterring terrorist attacks against public transportation systems, or mitigating damage from such attacks.
(d) Privacy and civil rights and civil liberties issues (1) Consultation
In carrying out research and development projects under this section, the Secretary shall consult with the Chief Privacy Officer of the Department and the Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties of the Department, as appropriate, and in accordance with section 142 of this title.
(2) Privacy impact assessments
In accordance with sections 142 and 345 of this title, the Chief Privacy Officer shall conduct privacy impact assessments and the Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties shall conduct reviews, as appropriate, for research and development initiatives developed under this section.
(e) Reporting requirement
Each entity that is awarded a grant or contract under this section shall report annually to the Department on the use of grant or contract funds received under this section to ensure that the awards made are expended in accordance with the purposes of this subchapter and the priorities developed by the Secretary.
The Secretary shall ensure that the research is consistent with the priorities established in the National Strategy for Public Transportation Security and is coordinated, to the extent practicable, with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and private sector public transportation, railroad, commuter railroad, and over-the-road bus research initiatives to leverage resources and avoid unnecessary duplicative efforts.
(g) Return of misspent grant or contract funds
If the Secretary determines that a grantee or contractor used any portion of the grant or contract funds received under this section for a purpose other than the allowable uses specified under subsection (c), the grantee or contractor shall return any amount so used to the Treasury of the United States.
(h) Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to make grants under this section—
(1) such sums as necessary for fiscal year 2007;
(2) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
(3) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
(4) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and
(5) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2011.
6 U.S.C. § 1138 (2018)