It is declared to be the policy of the Congress to promote the efficient production and utilization of products of the soil as essential to the health and welfare of our people and to promote a sound and prosperous agriculture and rural life as indispensable to the maintenance of maximum employment and national prosperity. It is also the intent of Congress to assure agriculture a position in research equal to that of industry which will aid in maintaining an equitable balance between agriculture and other sections of our economy. For the attainment of these objectives, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized and directed to conduct and to stimulate research into the laws and principles underlying the basic problems of agriculture in its broadest aspects, including but not limited to: Research relating to the improvement of the quality of, and the development of new and improved methods of the production, marketing, distribution, processing, and utilization of plant and animal commodities at all stages from the original producer through to the ultimate consumer; research into the problems of human nutrition and the nutritive value of agricultural commodities, with particular reference to their content of vitamins, minerals, amino and fatty acids, and all other constituents that may be found necessary for the health of the consumer and to the gains or losses in nutritive value that may take place at any stage in their production, distribution, processing, and preparation for use by the consumer; research relating to the development of present, new, and extended uses and markets for agricultural commodities and byproducts as food or in commerce, manufacture, or trade, both at home and abroad, with particular reference to those foods and fibers for which our capacity to produce exceeds or may exceed existing economic demand; research to encourage the discovery, introduction, and breeding of new and useful agricultural crops, plants, and animals, both foreign and native, particularly for those crops and plants which may be adapted to utilization in chemical and manufacturing industries; research relating to new and more profitable uses for our resources of agricultural manpower, soils, plants, animals, and equipment than those to which they are now, or may hereafter be, devoted; research relating to the conservation, development, and use of land, forest, and water resources for agricultural purposes; research relating to the design, development, and the more efficient and satisfactory use of farm buildings, farm homes, farm machinery, including the application of electricity and other forms of power; research and development relating to uses of solar energy with respect to farm buildings, farm homes, and farm machinery (including equipment used to dry and cure crops and provide irrigation); applied research to develop agricultural, forestry, and rural energy conservation and biomass energy production and use; research relating to the diversification of farm enterprises, both as to the type of commodities produced, and as to the types of operations performed, on the individual farm; research relating to any other laws and principles that may contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a permanent and effective agricultural industry including such investigations as have for their purpose the development and improvement of the rural home and rural life, and the maximum contribution by agriculture to the welfare of the consumer and the maintenance of maximum employment and national prosperity; and such other researches or experiments bearing on the agricultural industry or on rural homes of the United States as may in each case be deemd 1 advisable, having due regard to the varying conditions and needs of Puerto Rico, the respective States, and Territories. In effectuating the purposes of this section, maximum use shall be made of existing research facilities owned or controlled by the Federal Government or by State agricultural experiment stations and of the facilities of the Federal and State extension services. Research authorized under this section shall be in addition to research provided for under existing law (but both activities shall be coordinated so far as practicable). For purposes of this title,2 the term "solar energy" means energy derived from sources (other than fossil fuels) and technologies included in the Federal Non-Nuclear 3 Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, as amended [42 U.S.C. 5901 et seq.].
REFERENCES IN TEXT This title, referred to in text, means title I of act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, 49 Stat. 436. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1935 Amendment note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables. The Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, as amended, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 93–577, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1878, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 74 (§5901 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5901 of Title 42 and Tables.CODIFICATION Section was formerly classified to section 427 of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Section was enacted as part of act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, popularly known as the "Agricultural Research Act" and also as the "Bankhead-Jones Act", and not as part of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 which comprises this chapter. Another section 1446 of Pub. L. 95–113 is classified to section 3222a of this title.AMENDMENTS 1980—Pub. L. 96–294 inserted provisions relating to applied research to develop agricultural, forestry, and rural energy conservation and biomass energy production and use. 1977—Pub. L. 95–113 inserted reference to research and development relating to uses of solar energy with respect to farm buildings, farm homes, and farm machinery (including equipment used to dry and cure crops and provide irrigation) and inserted definition of "solar energy". 1946—Act Aug. 14, 1946, amended section generally to provide for a greatly augmented research program in order to enable agriculture to attain a position in research comparable to that of other industries.EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1977 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS Functions of all officers, agencies, and employees of Department of Agriculture transferred, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, eff. June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.EX. ORD. NO. 9310. TRANSFERRING NUTRITION FUNCTIONS OF OFFICE OF DEFENSE HEALTH AND WELFARE SERVICES TO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Ex. Ord. No. 9310, Mar. 6, 1943, 8 F.R. 2913, provided: By virtue of the authority vested in me by Title I of the First War Powers Act, 1941 [former sections 601 to 605 of the former Appendix to Title 50], as President of the United States, and in order to enable the Secretary of Agriculture more effectively to carry out his responsibilities with respect to the Nation’s food program, it is hereby ordered:
- The functions, powers, and duties, with respect to nutrition, (a) of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services in the Office for Emergency Management of the Executive Office of the President (including all functions, powers, and duties of the Nutrition Division of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services), and (b) of the Director of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, are transferred to the Department of Agriculture and shall be administered under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of Agriculture through such agency or agencies in the Department as the Secretary shall designate.
- The personnel, property, and records used primarily in the administration of the functions, powers, and duties transferred by this Order are transferred to the Department of Agriculture. So much of the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds available for the use of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services in discharging the functions, powers, and duties transferred by this Order, as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall determine, shall be transferred to the Department of Agriculture for use in connection with the exercise of the functions, powers, and duties so transferred. In determining the amounts to be transferred hereunder, allowance shall be made for the liquidation of obligations previously incurred against such appropriations, allocations, or other funds. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT.
7 U.S.C. § 3104 (2018)